Magnesium is often cited as the element most deficient in modem diets.
Total-body magnesium is about 25 grams, of which more than 50% resides in bone, 35% in skeletal muscle and 1 to 2% in blood. 20% of blood magnesium is protein bound. The bone pool is not completely bioavailable when general depletion occurs.
According to the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the mean magnesium intake for males and females is 323 and 228 mg/d, respectively, far less than the dietary reference intakes of 420 and 320 mg/d, respectively. Daily intakes of magnesium range between 84 and 598 mg.
Similar to calcium, bone magnesium decreases with age. Soft tissue magnesium concentration varies between tissue types, and cellular transport is regulated by numerous factors, including insulin, growth factors and catecholamines.
Sex hormones have also been demonstrated to impact total serum and ionized magnesium in women, depending on the time in menstrual.
Physiological Function of Mineral Nutrient Magnesium
Magnesium plays a key role in more than 350 enzymes, primarily as Mg-ATP complex in energy-dependent activities.
Magnesium is involved (as Mg-ATP) in virtually every metabolic process occurring in the body, including active transport such as the sodium-potassium ATPase pump, and cell signaling, including cAMP in protein phosphorylation.
Magnesium is involved in multiple steps of RNA and DNA synthesis. It also plays structural roles in DNA, cell membranes and chromosomes.
Magnesium plays numerous key roles in enzymes involved in protein, carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism. Examples include the amino acid transaminases, pyruvate dehydrogenase, and delta-6 desaturase enzymes.
Magnesium is a key cofactor in both methylation and sulfur amino acid metabolism, and is thus involved in the production of glutathione and S-adenosylmethionine. Magnesium is also required for formation of active cofactors from vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6 and pantothenic acid.
Causes of Deficiency of Mineral Nutrient Magnesium
Decreased intake, malabsorption, alcoholism, renal tubular, leak, aldosteronism, hyperparathyroidism, medications (e.g., diuretics)
Health concerns due to Magnesium deficiency
Muscular twitching and weakness, arrhythmias, irritability, convulsions, poor growth, insomnia, depression, hypertension, cardiovascular disease
Assessment of Magnesium Mineral Status
Direct markers: RBC, Whole Blood, Plasma, Serum, Urine
Functional Biomarkers: Refractory Hypokalemia
Supplementation of Magnesium
Children 2-12 years: 200-600mg
Adult male: 350-750mg
Adult female: 300-700mg
Best or most Bio-Available or Active form of Magnesium
Citrate, Lactate and Aspartate salts of Magnesium
Food sources for Magnesium
Whole grains, nuts, legumes, molasses, brewer’s yeast