Total-body calcium (Ca) is about 980 grams, which Is greater than any other element. Therefore Calcium is one of the most important component of a healthy diet and an essential mineral necessary for life.
The National Osteoporosis Foundation says, “Calcium plays an important role in building stronger, denser bones early in life and keeping bones strong and healthy later in life.” Approximately 99 percent of the body’s calcium is stored in the bones and teeth.
Physiological Function of Mineral Nutrient Calcium
The vast majority of calcium resides in bone.
Calcium is essential for bones and teeth, heart, nerves, muscles and blood clotting. Excitable and non-excitable cells require calcium (via calcium-activated potassium channels) to transmit impulses along nerves as well as participate in smooth, cardiac and skeletal muscle cell contraction or relaxation.
Calcium’s actions are as wide ranging as neuronal excitation, neurotransmitter release, innate immunity, hormonal secretion, and tone of smooth muscle cells in the vasculature, airways, uterus, gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and urinary bladder.
Calcium signaling is vital for hearing, given its role in tuning cochlear hair cells. Calcium plays a major role as a cofactor in the coagulation cascade.
In addition to its use as an adjunct treatment of osteoporosis, calcium supplementation has been used to modulate the consequences of colorectal cancer, kidney stones and hypertension’ (including preeclampsiat.
Causes of Deficiency of Mineral Nutrient Calcium
Decreased intake, malabsorption, renal failure, thyroid disorders, parathyroidectomy, hypovitaminosis D, medications such as heparin and glucagon.
Health concerns due to Calcium deficiency
Tetany, osteomalacia, arrhythmia, dry skin, brittle nails, mood changes (depression or irritability)
Assessment of Calcium Mineral Status
Hair or Urine Calcium, Bone resorption markers, Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, PTH
Supplementation of Calcium
Children 2-12 years: 200-1200mg
Adult male: 600-1300mg
Adult female: 750-1300mg
Pregnant or lactating women: upto 2000mg
Best or most Bio-Available or Active form of Calcium Mineral Nutrient
Citrate or Gluconate Satls of Calcium
Calcium Citrate Supplement
Calcium Citrate-Malate Supplement